Authors: Islem Mhiri (Université de Sousse); Ahmed Nebli (Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technologies (ISSAT), Universite de Sousse); Mohamed Ali Mahjoub (LATIS lab, National Engineering School of Sousse, ENISo, Sousse, Tunisia); Islem Rekik (Istanbul Technical University)*
Abstract: Brain graph synthesis marked a new era for predicting a target brain graph from a source one without incurring the high acquisition cost and processing time of neuroimaging data. However, existing multi-modal graph synthesis frameworks have several limitations. First, they mainly focus on generating graphs from the same domain (intra-modality), overlooking the rich multimodal representations of brain connectivity (inter-modality). Second, they can only handle isomorphic graph generation tasks, limiting their generalizability to synthesizing target graphs with a different node size and topological structure from those of the source one. More importantly, both target and source domains might have different distributions, which causes a domain fracture between them (i.e., distribution misalignment). To address such challenges, we propose an inter-modality aligner of non-isomorphic graphs (IMANGraphNet) framework to infer a target graph modality based on a given modality. Our three core contributions lie in (i) predicting a target graph (e.g., functional) from a source graph (e.g., morphological) based on a novel graph generative adversarial network (gGAN); (ii) using non-isomorphic graphs for both source and target domains with a different number of nodes, edges and structure; and (iii) enforcing the predicted target distribution to match that of the ground truth graphs using a graph autoencoder to relax the designed loss oprimization. Furthermore, to handle the unstable behavior of gGAN, we design a new Ground Truth-Preserving (GT-P) loss function to guide the generator in learning the topological structure of ground truth brain graphs more effectively. Our comprehensive experiments on predicting functional from morphological graphs demonstrate the outperformance of IMANGraphNet in comparison with its variants. This can be further leveraged for integrative and holistic brain mapping as well developing multimodal neurological diseases diagnostic frameworks.